Trenching is one of the most hazardous types of construction work. An effort by OSHA in the early 2000s helped reduce the number of trench fatalities in construction from between 35 and 45 annually down to between 10 and 18 per year from 2011 to 2015. In 2016, the number of trench fatalities rose to 33. This increase prompted researchers to take a closer look at the increase in trench fatalities, through analysis of the data, a review of the literature, and interviews with individuals knowledgeable about trench work. The study explored trends, causes, and possible ways to reduce trench collapse fatalities and injuries.